Big wolf

big wolf

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Both are cured before becoming permanent werewolves, but Tommy, despite his own attempts at being cured, is unsuccessful in finding a cure as he is a full werewolf.

Nonetheless, he accepts that being a werewolf is his fate, though an unwanted one. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

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The north has a declining population of an estimated wolves, while Xinjiang and Tibet hold about 10, and 2, respectively. It exists in southern China, which refutes claims made by some researchers in the Western world that the wolf had never existed in southern China.

It occurred all over the mainland, save for the southeastern United States, California west of the Sierra Nevada , and the tropical and subtropical areas of Mexico.

Large continental islands occupied by wolves included Newfoundland , Vancouver Island , southeastern Alaskan islands, and throughout the Arctic Archipelago and Greenland.

In his November 6, letter to the French Minister of the Marine, Louis Denys de La Ronde reported that the island was home to wolves "of a prodigious size", and sent a wolf pelt back to France to substantiate his claim.

As the island was cleared for settlement, the gray wolf population may have been extirpated, or relocated to the mainland across the winter ice: The decline of North American wolf populations coincided with increasing human populations and the expansion of agriculture.

By the start of the 20th century, the species had almost disappeared from the eastern USA, excepting some areas of the Appalachians and the northwestern Great Lakes Region.

In Canada, the gray wolf was extirpated in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia between and , and in Newfoundland around It vanished from the southern regions of Quebec and Ontario between and From —, the gray wolf was virtually eliminated from the western USA and adjoining parts of Canada, because of intensive predator control programs aimed at eradicating the species.

The gray wolf was exterminated by federal and state governments from all of the USA by , except in Alaska and northern Minnesota.

The decline in North American wolf populations was reversed from the s to the early s, particularly in southwestern Canada, because of expanding ungulate populations resulting from improved regulation of big game hunting.

This increase triggered a resumption of wolf control in western and northern Canada. Thousands of wolves were killed from the early s to the early s, mostly by poisoning.

This campaign was halted and wolf populations increased again by the mids. A functional wolf population should exist in California by according to estimates by state wildlife officials.

In addition, the Mexican wolf Canis lupus baileyi was reintroduced to Arizona and New Mexico in Canada is home to about 52,—60, wolves, whose legal status varies according to province and territory.

First Nations residents may hunt wolves without restriction, and some provinces require licenses for residents to hunt wolves while others do not.

In Alberta , wolves on private land may be baited and hunted by the landowner without requiring a license, and in some areas, wolf hunting bounty programs exist.

In Alaska, the gray wolf population is estimated at 6,—7,, and can be legally harvested during hunting and trapping seasons, with bag limits and other restrictions.

As of , there are wolves in 28 packs in Yellowstone, and wolves in 25 packs in Idaho. Reintroduced Mexican wolves in Arizona and New Mexico are protected under the ESA and, as of late , number 28 individuals in eight packs.

Viral diseases carried by wolves include rabies , canine distemper , canine parvovirus , infectious canine hepatitis , papillomatosis , canine coronavirus , [] and foot and mouth disease.

Infected wolves do not show any fear of humans, with most documented wolf attacks on people being attributed to rabid animals.

Although canine distemper is lethal in dogs, it has not been recorded to kill wolves, except in Canada and Alaska.

The canine parvovirus, which causes death by dehydration , electrolyte imbalance , and endotoxic shock or sepsis , is largely survivable in wolves, but can be lethal to pups.

Wolves may catch infectious canine hepatitis from dogs, though there are no records of wolves dying from it.

The canine coronavirus has been recorded in Alaskan wolves, with infections being most prevalent in winter months. Bacterial diseases carried by wolves include brucellosis , lyme disease , leptospirosis , tularemia , bovine tuberculosis , [] listeriosis and anthrax.

While adult wolves tend not to show any clinical signs, it can severely weaken the pups of infected females. Although lyme disease can debilitate individual wolves, it does not appear to have any significant effect on wolf populations.

Leptospirosis can be contracted through contact with infected prey or urine, and can cause fever , anorexia , vomiting, anemia , hematuria , icterus , and death.

Wolves living near farms are more vulnerable to the disease than those living in the wilderness, probably because of prolonged contact with infected domestic animal waste.

Wolves may catch tularemia from lagomorph prey, though its effect on wolves is unknown. Although bovine tuberculosis is not considered a major threat to wolves, it has been recorded to have once killed two wolf pups in Canada.

Wolves carry ectoparasites and endoparasites , with wolves in the former Soviet Union having been recorded to carry at least 50 species.

In areas where wolves inhabit pastoral areas, the parasites can be spread to livestock. Wolves are often infested with a variety of arthropod exoparasites, including fleas , ticks , lice , and mites.

The most harmful to wolves, particularly pups, is Sarcoptes scabiei or mange mite , [] though they rarely develop full blown mange , unlike foxes.

Ticks of the genus Ixodes can infect wolves with Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Other ectoparasites include biting lice, sucking lice and the fleas Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides canis.

Endoparasites known to infect wolves include protozoans and helminths flukes , tapeworms , roundworms and thorny-headed worms.

Of 30, protozoan species, only a few have been recorded to infect wolves: Isospora , Toxoplasma , Sarcocystis , Babesia , and Giardia.

Tapeworms are commonly found in wolves, as their primary hosts are ungulates, small mammals, and fish, which wolves feed upon.

Tapeworms generally cause little harm in wolves, though this depends on the number and size of the parasites, and the sensitivity of the host.

Symptoms often include constipation , toxic and allergic reactions , irritation of the intestinal mucosa , and malnutrition. Infections by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in ungulate populations tend to increase in areas with high wolf densities, as wolves can shed Echinoccocus eggs in their feces onto grazing areas.

Wolves can carry over 30 roundworm species, though most roundworm infections appear benign, depending on the number of worms and the age of the host.

Toxocara canis , a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in utero, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Wolves can tolerate low levels of Dirofilaria immitis for many years without showing any ill effects, though high levels can kill wolves through cardiac enlargement and congestive hepatopathy.

Wolves probably become infected with Trichinella spiralis by eating infected ungulates. Nicolla skrjabini , Macrocantorhynchus catulinus , and Moniliformis moniliformis.

Human presence appears to stress wolves, as seen by increased cortisol levels in instances such as snowmobiling near their territory. Old English literature contains several instances of Anglo-Saxon kings and warriors taking on wulf as a prefix or suffix in their names.

Wolf-related names were also common among pre-Christian Germanic warriors: Ancient Greek literature is similar: Autolycus "the wolf itself" , Lycurgus "wolf-work" [ citation needed ].

The Latin for "female prostitute" is lupa , and the most famous brothel in Pompeii was the Lupanar. The wolf is a common motif in the foundational mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout Eurasia and North America corresponding to the historical extent of the habitat of the gray wolf.

The obvious attribute of the wolf is its nature of a predator , and correspondingly it is strongly associated with danger and destruction, making it the symbol of the warrior on one hand, and that of the devil on the other.

The modern trope of the Big Bad Wolf is a development of this. The wolf holds great importance in the cultures and religions of the nomadic peoples, both of the Eurasian steppe and of the North American Plains.

In many cultures, the identification of the warrior with the wolf totemism gave rise to the notion of Lycanthropy , the mythical or ritual identification of man and wolf.

His most famous is the fable of The Boy Who Cried Wolf , which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase " to cry wolf " is derived.

Some of his other fables concentrate on maintaining the trust between shepherds and guard dogs in their vigilance against wolves, as well as anxieties over the close relationship between wolves and dogs.

The wolf in this story is portrayed as a potential rapist , capable of imitating human speech. Although credited with having changed popular perceptions on wolves by portraying them as loving, cooperative and noble, it has been criticized for its idealization of wolves and its factual inaccuracies.

The wolf is a frequent charge in English armory. It is illustrated as a supporter on the shields of Lord Welby , Rendel , and Viscount Wolseley , and can be found on the coat of arms of Lovett and the vast majority of the Wilsons and Lows.

The demi-wolf is a common crest , appearing in the arms and crests of members of many families, including that of the Wolfes , whose crest depicts a demi-wolf holding a crown in its paws, in reference to the assistance the family gave to Charles II during the battle of Worcester.

Wolf heads are common in Scottish heraldry , particularly in the coats of Clan Robertson and Skene. The wolf is the most common animal in Spanish heraldry , and is often depicted as carrying a lamb in its mouth, or across its back.

It is the unofficial symbol of the spetsnaz , and serves as the logo of the Turkish Grey Wolves. Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves, and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation: Being the most abundant carnivores, free-ranging dogs have the greatest potential to compete with wolves.

A review of the studies in the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves.

Wolves kill dogs on occasion, with some wolf populations relying on dogs as an important food source. Wolves may display unusually bold behavior when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans.

Large hunting dogs such as Swedish elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves.

Although the numbers of dogs killed each year are relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs. In many cultures, there are strong social and emotional bonds between humans and their dogs that can be seen as family members or working team members.

The loss of a dog can lead to strong emotional responses with demands for more liberal wolf hunting regulations. Dogs that are employed to guard sheep help to mitigate human—wolf conflicts, and are often proposed as one of the non-lethal tools in the conservation of wolves.

Predatory attacks attacks by wolves treating humans as food may be preceded by a long period of habituation , in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans.

The victims are repeatedly bitten on the head and face, and are then dragged off and consumed, unless the wolves are driven off.

Such attacks typically occur only locally, and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated.

Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June—August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking increase, [24] though cases of non-rabid wolf attacks in winter have been recorded in Belarus , Kirov and Irkutsk oblasts, Karelia and Ukraine.

The majority of victims of predatory wolf attacks are children under the age of 18 and, in the rare cases where adults are killed, the victims are almost always women.

Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes.

Incidents of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean , Middle East and Central Asia. Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree which, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals, [24] with bites from rabid wolves being 15 times more dangerous than those of rabid dogs.

Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally only occur on a single day.

The victims are chosen at random, though the majority of cases involve adult men. During the 50 years to , there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, and more than in south Asia.

Wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill hunting dogs.

Wild wolves are sometimes kept as exotic pets and, in some rarer occasions, as working animals. Although closely related to domesticated dogs , wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, and generally, much more work is required in order to obtain the same amount of reliability.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gray wolf. This article is about the gray wolf, Canis lupus, and its subspecies.

For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf disambiguation. For other uses, see Grey Wolf disambiguation. Middle Pleistocene — present ,—0 years BP [1].

Linnaeus , [3]. Subspecies of Canis lupus. Evolution of the wolf. List of gray wolf populations by country. Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology.

Wolf attacks on humans and List of wolf attacks. Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs. Human uses of hunted wolves.

Wolves as pets and working animals. However, neither dogs nor dingoes are referred to as gray wolves. Throughout this article, the term "wolf" will be used to refer collectively to naturally occurring subspecies, especially the nominate subspecies, Canis lupus lupus.

This terminology was first used in by Rudolf Schenkel of the University of Basel , who based his findings on researching the behavior of captive gray wolves.

This view on gray wolf pack dynamics was later popularized by L. David Mech in his book The Wolf. He formally disavowed this terminology in , explaining that it was heavily based on the behavior of captive packs consisting of unrelated individuals, an error reflecting the once prevailing view that wild pack formation occurred in winter among independent gray wolves.

Later research on wild gray wolves revealed that the pack is usually a family consisting of a breeding pair and its offspring of the previous 1—3 years.

Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Tomus I in Latin 10 ed. Gray wolf Canis lupus and allies", in Feldhamer, George A.

Wild Mammals of North America: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Uses authors parameter link CS1 maint: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference.

Johns Hopkins University Press. Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol. Its Domestication and Behavior. The cautionary case of Bulgarian wolves".

Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. The Fear of Wolves: A contribution to the study of wolf-dog hybridization patterns".

Archived from the original PDF on September 24, Retrieved June 2, A new profile for the wolf. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves Canis lupus.

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: PLOS Genetics, 10 7. Comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa".

Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Journal of Applied Genetics. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Archived from the original on December 14, Environmental and intrinsic correlates of stress in free-ranging wolves.

PLOS One, 10 9. Decade of the Wolf: The Quarterly Review of Biology. University of California Press. Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity.

The Wolves of Isle Royale. Fauna of the National Parks of the United States. Retrieved March 16, Social behavior of langur monkeys Presbytis entellus in a high altitude environment.

Wolves Change An Ecosystem". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved August 10, Conservation Action Plan for the golden jackal Canis aureus L.

S; Andriashek, D Mashkour " Hyenas around the cities. Zoology in the Middle East. Mammals of the Soviet Union: Carnivora hyaenas and cats , Volume 2.

Archived from the original on February 25, Wild cats of the world , University of Chicago Press, p. American Society of Mammalogists.

Archived from the original PDF on June 17, In Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Carnivores quaternaires du Sud-Est de la France.

In Weiss, Steven; Ferrand, Nuno. Phylogeography of Southern European Refugia. Archived from the original PDF on March 25, Also available in German: Heinz Staffelbach, Handbuch Schweizer Alpen.

Animals in the Third Reich: The New York Times. Retrieved September 4, Kuolleissa susissa vanhoja hauleja" , Iltalehti , March 19, Retrieved May 19, Translated by Kevin White.

Retrieved May 2, Retrieved November 24, In Deutschland leben 46 Wolfsrudel". Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press, pp.

Archived from the original PDF on August 21, Retrieved June 27, Cultural Perspectives , Psychology Press, pp.

Archived from the original PDF on July 27, A Guide to the Mammals of China. Retrieved February 9, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks.

Retrieved July 2, Archived from the original on July 30, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Archived from the original PDF on March 19, Retrieved January 25, Snowmobile activity and glucocorticoid stress responses in wolves and elk.

Conservation Biology,16 3 , — The Canadian Historical Review. Archived from the original PDF on June 21, A Complete Guide to Heraldry.

University of Oklahoma Press. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. The complex interactions between wolves Canis lupus and dogs Canis familiaris in a conservation context".

Acta Zoologica Fennica Wolf attacks on dogs in Scandinavia — Will wolves in Scandinavia go extinct if dog owners are allowed to kill a wolf attacking a dog?

What is wrong with Romanian livestock guarding dogs? Hunting the grisly and other sketches; an account of the big game of the United States and its chase with horse, hound, and rifle , New York, London, G.

African palm civet N. Angolan slender mongoose G. Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H. Small-toothed palm civet A. Sulawesi palm civet M. Masked palm civet P.

Golden wet-zone palm civet P. Banded palm civet H. Central African oyan P. Malabar large-spotted civet V. Small Indian civet V. Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose G.

American black bear U. Sunda stink badger M. Southern spotted skunk S. Eastern lowland olingo B. Western mountain coati N. South American fur seal A.

Northern fur seal C. Steller sea lion E. Australian sea lion N. South American sea lion O. New Zealand sea lion P. California sea lion Z.

Northern elephant seal M. Mediterranean monk seal M. Family Canidae includes dogs. African wild dog L. African clawless otter A.

North American river otter L. Saharan striped polecat I. African striped weasel P. Humanzee Hybrid orangutan Koolakamba.

Polecat—ferret hybrid Polecat—mink hybrid. ABC Islands bear Grizzly—polar bear hybrid. Armiger Law of heraldic arms Grant of arms Blazon.

Conventional elements of coats of arms Escutcheon. National coat of arms Arms of dominion Ecclesiastical heraldry Burgher arms Civic heraldry Attributed arms.

Dolphin Ged Lucy esox Scallop. Reremouse Bee Crapaudy toad Emmet ant Serpent. Retrieved from " https: Views Read View source View history.

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Dawkins is a teenager who is mauled by a werewolf during a camping trip. After returning to his home town of Pleasantville, of which his father is the mayor, there are sightings of the "Pleasantville Werewolf".

Dingle, a keen expert of the supernatural. Together they battle other paranormal creatures that comes into their town. At the end of the first season, Stacy leaves for college after graduation.

Some of the antagonists in the series take a toll on Tommy, such as the werewolf who bit him. Tommy also stands against a Werewolf Syndicate who intends on using Tommy to create other werewolves, as they are unable to since they are not Alphas like Tommy.

At some point Merton and Lori, on two different occasions, are turned into werewolves themselves. Merton is accidentally bitten while doing dental work on Tommy, and becomes excited at the notion of becoming a werewolf, and Lori is bitten by Tommy after he is brainwashed during an encounter with the Syndicate, which results in a takeover.

Both are cured before becoming permanent werewolves, but Tommy, despite his own attempts at being cured, is unsuccessful in finding a cure as he is a full werewolf.

Nonetheless, he accepts that being a werewolf is his fate, though an unwanted one. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The wolf was deemed a threat to ranching, which the Meiji government promoted at the time, and targeted via a bounty system and a direct chemical extermination campaign inspired by the similar contemporary American campaign.

The last Japanese wolf was a male killed on January 23, near Washikaguchi now called Higashi Yoshiro. Japanese wolves likely underwent a process of island dwarfism 7,—13, years ago in response to these climatological and ecological pressures.

There is little reliable data on the status of wolves in the Middle East , save for those in Israel and Saudi Arabia , though their numbers appear to be stable, and are likely to remain so.

The mountains of Turkey have served as a refuge for the few wolves remaining in Syria. A small wolf population occurs in the Golan Heights , and is well protected by the military activities there.

Wolves living in the southern Negev desert are contiguous with populations living in the Egyptian Sinai and Jordan. Throughout the Middle East, the species is only protected in Israel.

Elsewhere, it can be hunted year-round by Bedouins. Little is known of current wolf populations in Iran, which once occurred throughout the country in low densities during the mids.

The northern regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan are important strongholds for the wolf. Overall, India supports about , wolves, scattered among several remnant populations.

Although protected since , Indian wolves are classed as endangered, with many populations lingering in low numbers or living in areas increasingly used by humans.

Although present in Nepal and Bhutan , there is no information of wolves occurring there. Wolf populations throughout Northern and Central Asia are largely unknown, but are estimated in the hundreds of thousands based on annual harvests.

Since the fall of the Soviet Union , continent-wide extermination of wolves has ceased, and wolf populations have increased to about 25,—30, animals throughout the former Soviet Union.

In China and Mongolia , wolves are only protected in reserves. Mongolian populations have been estimated at 10,—30,, while the status of wolves in China is more fragmentary.

The north has a declining population of an estimated wolves, while Xinjiang and Tibet hold about 10, and 2, respectively.

It exists in southern China, which refutes claims made by some researchers in the Western world that the wolf had never existed in southern China.

It occurred all over the mainland, save for the southeastern United States, California west of the Sierra Nevada , and the tropical and subtropical areas of Mexico.

Large continental islands occupied by wolves included Newfoundland , Vancouver Island , southeastern Alaskan islands, and throughout the Arctic Archipelago and Greenland.

In his November 6, letter to the French Minister of the Marine, Louis Denys de La Ronde reported that the island was home to wolves "of a prodigious size", and sent a wolf pelt back to France to substantiate his claim.

As the island was cleared for settlement, the gray wolf population may have been extirpated, or relocated to the mainland across the winter ice: The decline of North American wolf populations coincided with increasing human populations and the expansion of agriculture.

By the start of the 20th century, the species had almost disappeared from the eastern USA, excepting some areas of the Appalachians and the northwestern Great Lakes Region.

In Canada, the gray wolf was extirpated in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia between and , and in Newfoundland around It vanished from the southern regions of Quebec and Ontario between and From —, the gray wolf was virtually eliminated from the western USA and adjoining parts of Canada, because of intensive predator control programs aimed at eradicating the species.

The gray wolf was exterminated by federal and state governments from all of the USA by , except in Alaska and northern Minnesota.

The decline in North American wolf populations was reversed from the s to the early s, particularly in southwestern Canada, because of expanding ungulate populations resulting from improved regulation of big game hunting.

This increase triggered a resumption of wolf control in western and northern Canada. Thousands of wolves were killed from the early s to the early s, mostly by poisoning.

This campaign was halted and wolf populations increased again by the mids. A functional wolf population should exist in California by according to estimates by state wildlife officials.

In addition, the Mexican wolf Canis lupus baileyi was reintroduced to Arizona and New Mexico in Canada is home to about 52,—60, wolves, whose legal status varies according to province and territory.

First Nations residents may hunt wolves without restriction, and some provinces require licenses for residents to hunt wolves while others do not.

In Alberta , wolves on private land may be baited and hunted by the landowner without requiring a license, and in some areas, wolf hunting bounty programs exist.

In Alaska, the gray wolf population is estimated at 6,—7,, and can be legally harvested during hunting and trapping seasons, with bag limits and other restrictions.

As of , there are wolves in 28 packs in Yellowstone, and wolves in 25 packs in Idaho. Reintroduced Mexican wolves in Arizona and New Mexico are protected under the ESA and, as of late , number 28 individuals in eight packs.

Viral diseases carried by wolves include rabies , canine distemper , canine parvovirus , infectious canine hepatitis , papillomatosis , canine coronavirus , [] and foot and mouth disease.

Infected wolves do not show any fear of humans, with most documented wolf attacks on people being attributed to rabid animals.

Although canine distemper is lethal in dogs, it has not been recorded to kill wolves, except in Canada and Alaska. The canine parvovirus, which causes death by dehydration , electrolyte imbalance , and endotoxic shock or sepsis , is largely survivable in wolves, but can be lethal to pups.

Wolves may catch infectious canine hepatitis from dogs, though there are no records of wolves dying from it. The canine coronavirus has been recorded in Alaskan wolves, with infections being most prevalent in winter months.

Bacterial diseases carried by wolves include brucellosis , lyme disease , leptospirosis , tularemia , bovine tuberculosis , [] listeriosis and anthrax.

While adult wolves tend not to show any clinical signs, it can severely weaken the pups of infected females.

Although lyme disease can debilitate individual wolves, it does not appear to have any significant effect on wolf populations.

Leptospirosis can be contracted through contact with infected prey or urine, and can cause fever , anorexia , vomiting, anemia , hematuria , icterus , and death.

Wolves living near farms are more vulnerable to the disease than those living in the wilderness, probably because of prolonged contact with infected domestic animal waste.

Wolves may catch tularemia from lagomorph prey, though its effect on wolves is unknown. Although bovine tuberculosis is not considered a major threat to wolves, it has been recorded to have once killed two wolf pups in Canada.

Wolves carry ectoparasites and endoparasites , with wolves in the former Soviet Union having been recorded to carry at least 50 species.

In areas where wolves inhabit pastoral areas, the parasites can be spread to livestock. Wolves are often infested with a variety of arthropod exoparasites, including fleas , ticks , lice , and mites.

The most harmful to wolves, particularly pups, is Sarcoptes scabiei or mange mite , [] though they rarely develop full blown mange , unlike foxes.

Ticks of the genus Ixodes can infect wolves with Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Other ectoparasites include biting lice, sucking lice and the fleas Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides canis.

Endoparasites known to infect wolves include protozoans and helminths flukes , tapeworms , roundworms and thorny-headed worms. Of 30, protozoan species, only a few have been recorded to infect wolves: Isospora , Toxoplasma , Sarcocystis , Babesia , and Giardia.

Tapeworms are commonly found in wolves, as their primary hosts are ungulates, small mammals, and fish, which wolves feed upon.

Tapeworms generally cause little harm in wolves, though this depends on the number and size of the parasites, and the sensitivity of the host.

Symptoms often include constipation , toxic and allergic reactions , irritation of the intestinal mucosa , and malnutrition.

Infections by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in ungulate populations tend to increase in areas with high wolf densities, as wolves can shed Echinoccocus eggs in their feces onto grazing areas.

Wolves can carry over 30 roundworm species, though most roundworm infections appear benign, depending on the number of worms and the age of the host.

Toxocara canis , a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in utero, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea. Wolves can tolerate low levels of Dirofilaria immitis for many years without showing any ill effects, though high levels can kill wolves through cardiac enlargement and congestive hepatopathy.

Wolves probably become infected with Trichinella spiralis by eating infected ungulates. Nicolla skrjabini , Macrocantorhynchus catulinus , and Moniliformis moniliformis.

Human presence appears to stress wolves, as seen by increased cortisol levels in instances such as snowmobiling near their territory.

Old English literature contains several instances of Anglo-Saxon kings and warriors taking on wulf as a prefix or suffix in their names.

Wolf-related names were also common among pre-Christian Germanic warriors: Ancient Greek literature is similar: Autolycus "the wolf itself" , Lycurgus "wolf-work" [ citation needed ].

The Latin for "female prostitute" is lupa , and the most famous brothel in Pompeii was the Lupanar. The wolf is a common motif in the foundational mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout Eurasia and North America corresponding to the historical extent of the habitat of the gray wolf.

The obvious attribute of the wolf is its nature of a predator , and correspondingly it is strongly associated with danger and destruction, making it the symbol of the warrior on one hand, and that of the devil on the other.

The modern trope of the Big Bad Wolf is a development of this. The wolf holds great importance in the cultures and religions of the nomadic peoples, both of the Eurasian steppe and of the North American Plains.

In many cultures, the identification of the warrior with the wolf totemism gave rise to the notion of Lycanthropy , the mythical or ritual identification of man and wolf.

His most famous is the fable of The Boy Who Cried Wolf , which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase " to cry wolf " is derived.

Some of his other fables concentrate on maintaining the trust between shepherds and guard dogs in their vigilance against wolves, as well as anxieties over the close relationship between wolves and dogs.

The wolf in this story is portrayed as a potential rapist , capable of imitating human speech. Although credited with having changed popular perceptions on wolves by portraying them as loving, cooperative and noble, it has been criticized for its idealization of wolves and its factual inaccuracies.

The wolf is a frequent charge in English armory. It is illustrated as a supporter on the shields of Lord Welby , Rendel , and Viscount Wolseley , and can be found on the coat of arms of Lovett and the vast majority of the Wilsons and Lows.

The demi-wolf is a common crest , appearing in the arms and crests of members of many families, including that of the Wolfes , whose crest depicts a demi-wolf holding a crown in its paws, in reference to the assistance the family gave to Charles II during the battle of Worcester.

Wolf heads are common in Scottish heraldry , particularly in the coats of Clan Robertson and Skene. The wolf is the most common animal in Spanish heraldry , and is often depicted as carrying a lamb in its mouth, or across its back.

It is the unofficial symbol of the spetsnaz , and serves as the logo of the Turkish Grey Wolves. Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves, and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation: Being the most abundant carnivores, free-ranging dogs have the greatest potential to compete with wolves.

A review of the studies in the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves.

Wolves kill dogs on occasion, with some wolf populations relying on dogs as an important food source. Wolves may display unusually bold behavior when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans.

Large hunting dogs such as Swedish elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves. Although the numbers of dogs killed each year are relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs.

In many cultures, there are strong social and emotional bonds between humans and their dogs that can be seen as family members or working team members.

The loss of a dog can lead to strong emotional responses with demands for more liberal wolf hunting regulations. Dogs that are employed to guard sheep help to mitigate human—wolf conflicts, and are often proposed as one of the non-lethal tools in the conservation of wolves.

Predatory attacks attacks by wolves treating humans as food may be preceded by a long period of habituation , in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans.

The victims are repeatedly bitten on the head and face, and are then dragged off and consumed, unless the wolves are driven off.

Such attacks typically occur only locally, and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated. Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June—August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking increase, [24] though cases of non-rabid wolf attacks in winter have been recorded in Belarus , Kirov and Irkutsk oblasts, Karelia and Ukraine.

The majority of victims of predatory wolf attacks are children under the age of 18 and, in the rare cases where adults are killed, the victims are almost always women.

Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes.

Incidents of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean , Middle East and Central Asia.

Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree which, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals, [24] with bites from rabid wolves being 15 times more dangerous than those of rabid dogs.

Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally only occur on a single day.

The victims are chosen at random, though the majority of cases involve adult men. During the 50 years to , there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, and more than in south Asia.

Wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill hunting dogs.

Wild wolves are sometimes kept as exotic pets and, in some rarer occasions, as working animals. Although closely related to domesticated dogs , wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, and generally, much more work is required in order to obtain the same amount of reliability.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gray wolf. This article is about the gray wolf, Canis lupus, and its subspecies.

For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf disambiguation. For other uses, see Grey Wolf disambiguation. Middle Pleistocene — present ,—0 years BP [1].

Linnaeus , [3]. Subspecies of Canis lupus. Evolution of the wolf. List of gray wolf populations by country. Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology.

Wolf attacks on humans and List of wolf attacks. Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs. Human uses of hunted wolves. Wolves as pets and working animals.

However, neither dogs nor dingoes are referred to as gray wolves. Throughout this article, the term "wolf" will be used to refer collectively to naturally occurring subspecies, especially the nominate subspecies, Canis lupus lupus.

This terminology was first used in by Rudolf Schenkel of the University of Basel , who based his findings on researching the behavior of captive gray wolves.

This view on gray wolf pack dynamics was later popularized by L. David Mech in his book The Wolf. He formally disavowed this terminology in , explaining that it was heavily based on the behavior of captive packs consisting of unrelated individuals, an error reflecting the once prevailing view that wild pack formation occurred in winter among independent gray wolves.

Later research on wild gray wolves revealed that the pack is usually a family consisting of a breeding pair and its offspring of the previous 1—3 years.

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African palm civet N. Angolan slender mongoose G. Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H. Small-toothed palm civet A. Sulawesi palm civet M.

Masked palm civet P. Golden wet-zone palm civet P. Banded palm civet H. Central African oyan P. Malabar large-spotted civet V.

Small Indian civet V. Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose G. American black bear U. Sunda stink badger M. Southern spotted skunk S.

Eastern lowland olingo B. Western mountain coati N. South American fur seal A. Northern fur seal C. Steller sea lion E.

Australian sea lion N. South American sea lion O. New Zealand sea lion P. California sea lion Z. Northern elephant seal M. Mediterranean monk seal M.

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